History Review of lessons 151-154
I studied the Electron microscope, the FM Radio, Nuclear Fission, and the Transistor.
Electron Microscope, invented 1931.
The Electron Microscope, was invented by Leo Szilard, in 1931, but he never built it. It wasn’t until 1933 that the first electron microscope was built by Ernst Ruska. The electron microscope is a very high powered microscope that uses electrons instead of light. The electron microscope lets us see things as small as viruses and their behavior.
FM Radio, invented 1933.
The FM Radio, was invented in 1933 by Edwin Armstrong, who was born in New York, in 1890. FM radio is a lot less sensitive to interference, which means it can be transmitted longer distances then AM radio. FM radio is responsible for the rising popularity of country music and conservative talk shows.
Nuclear Fission, invented 1939.
Nuclear Fission, was invented by two men, Read Rutherford, and Leo Szilard. Rutherford split atoms in 1932, Szilard demonstrated nuclear fission in 1939, and finally in 1945 the first atomic bomb was made. Only two atomic bombs have ever been used and that was during WWII. The first Hydrogen bomb exploded in 1952.
Transistor, invented in 1947.
The Transistor, was invented in 1947 at bell labs by three men, John Bardeen, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain. Transistor computers came out in 1950, and transistor radios came out in 1955. By the end of the 1960’s transistors where selling by the billions. An iphone today has about 20 million transistors and the computer has a few billion.
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History review of lessons 146-149
I studied the Crystal Oscillator, George Washington Carver, the Yagi Uda Antenna, and Penicillin.
The Crystal Oscillator, invented 1917.
The Crystal Oscillator, was invented by Alexander Nicholson, in 1917, at Bell labs. When solid materials (such as Crystals) are squeezed they produce electricity, and that’s what the crystal oscillators do. They are important in transmitters and receivers. The crystal oscillator improved clocks and radios and made wristwatches possible. By the end of the 1960’s they were used in all electronics.
George Washington Carver, born 1860’s.
George Washington Carver, was born a slave sometime in the 1860’s. When he was born was unknown to him, just that it was sometime in the 1860’s. When he got older he went to college to study art and piano. He worked on promoting crop rotation and peanuts in the south, he even wrote a book that had 105 recipes for peanuts. He became known as the “Peanut man”, and by the 1940’s peanuts became the south’s second largest crop.
Yagi Uda Antenna, invented 1926.
The Yagi Uda Antenna, was invented by Hidetugu Yagi, and Shintaro Uda, in 1926. The yagi uda antenna is pretty much a directional antenna. It was used in WWII and it made TV go mainstream. It’s responsible for cable TV, and the yagi uda antenna is still found on roof tops across the world.
Penicillin, invented 1929.
Penicillin, was invented by Alexander Fleming, born in Scotland, in 1881. After WWI he studied bacteria for 14 years and after seeing that a mold that was growing in a dish of bacteria was killing the bacteria around it, he invented penicillin, in 1929. What is penicillin? Penicillin is a fungus (or mold juice, as Fleming used to call it) that kills bacteria. After Fleming invented penicillin it wasn’t used for another 13 years.
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This week I studied the Safety Razor, Airplane, Vacuum Tube, and the Model T.
Safety Razor, 1901
The Safety Razor was invented by King Camp Gillette, born in Wisconsin in 1855. Before the safety razor it was really hard to get a shave without cutting your face all up. King Camp Gillette, worked as a cork salesman, and he saw that people would buy disposable products only to use it a few times and throw it away the next day. He applied that concept to the razor and invented the safety razor, in 1901. The safety razor makes it much easier to shave and you didn’t need to sharpen it because when the razor blades got dull you just throw the blade away and snap another one on the handle. The impact the safety razor had is before the safety razor very few men didn’t have beards and after the safety razor very few men had beards.
Humans have always wanted to fly. Hot air balloons arrived in 1866, but people didn’t just want to go up and down but they wanted to fly through the air. Orville Wright, was in was born in Ohio in 8171 and Wilbur Wright was born in Indiana in 1867. Nether of them finished high school. They opened up a bicycles repair shop in 1892 and soon they started making their own bicycles. Inspired by Otto Lilienthan, they started experimenting with different gliders and finally in 1903 when they found the right glider, they added a motor and invented the airplane! Airplanes carry passengers and cargo really far, really fast. No one believed that the Wright brothers invented the airplane, but later on they held public demonstrations to prove it. The airplane had a big impact on shipping, warfare, and transportation.
Vacuum tube, 1904
John Fleming, was born in England in 1849. He wanted to be an engineer at the age of 11. When he got older he worked for Edison’s company, then started working for Marconi. He invented the vacuum tube in 1904. It’s used to convert AC power to DC power. It improved radios and computers, it led to CRTs, which made the TV possible.
Model T, 1908
Henry Ford, was born in Michigan in 1863. He built a quadricycle in 1896, and he made a race car 1902. Ford wanted to make a car that families could afford, so model after model Ford improved his car and in 1908 Henry Ford invented the very first family affordable car. In just days over 15,000 orders came in. The model T went from $825 to $260 in 16 years (Which is like from $22,000 to 13,000 in today’s money) Ford’s influence led to the auto-start ignition. Today cars are so common we don’t stop to think what it would be like without them.
Thanks for reading, let me know of mistakes.
This week I studied the Light Bulb, Cash Register, Thermostat, and the Steam Turbine.
Light Bulb, 1879
In the 17 and early 18 hundreds there was no really good light source. At that time arc lamps were the best light source, but they were too bright for houses and smaller buildings. There was gas lighting, oil lighting, and of course the candle, but they all had weaknesses, so a better source was needed. Edison tried 3,000 different versions of the light bulb, and 6,000 different kinds of plant matter for the right filament. Finally in 1879 Edison invented the incandescent light bulb. The light bulb replaced the oil lamps, gas lamps, and the candle (mostly). The city or New York was lit up with the light bulb in 1882 and soon other cities fallowed. The light bulb is so common that you see one every day.
Cash Register, 1879
Stores were having a problem with their employees stealing from them, so they needed something that would keep the their money safe. James Ritty, was born in Ohio in 1836. He opened up a saloon in 1878, he started having the same problem as the other business owners, his employees where stealing from him. he was inspired while on a boat trip to Europe, he invented the cash register in 1879. Cash registers stopped employees from stealing from him because it kept track of how much money was suppose to be in the cash register, so if someone took some money from the cash register then the owner would know that some money was not there that was suppose to be there. It also had a little bell that would ring every time the cash register was opened, so the owner could watch the employee to make sure he was not stealing. The cash register controlled 95% of the market by 1911, and is responsible for the percentage of employees stealing from their bosses going down.
Warren Jonson, was born in Vermont in 1847. He became a science professor when he was 34, and invented the thermostat in 1883. A thermostat regulates the temperature of your house. It’s also used in refrigerators to make sure the refrigerator dose not get to hot. The Johnson Electric Service Company was founded in 1885 to produce the thermostat. He developed the multi-zone thermostat in 1895. The thermostat is also responsible for the hot water heater.
Steam Turbine, 1884
Charles Parsons, was born in England in 1854. He assisted his father in astronomical work, and learned about shipbuilding and weapons manufacturing. Then he moved into electrical machinery in 1884. Finally inspired from contemporary design, he invented the steam turbine in 1884. Steam turbines produce electricity, they are very very complex, and they make bulk power production cheap. Mr. Parsons founded a company to manufacture the turbines. Mr. Westinghouse became interested and he increased the size of Parson’s turbine and extended them to use in ships. The turbines power battleships and submarines.